Last Name First Name University Role
Barchi Massimiliano Rinaldo University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Professor, Coordinator of the Phd School
Baldanza Angela University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Researcher
Balic-Zunic Tonci University of Copenaghen, Section of Geology Professor
Bennett Richard Anthony University of Arizona, Department of Geosciences Professor
Cardellini Carlo University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Professor
Caricchi Luca Université de Genève Professor
Cencetti Corrado University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Professor
Cherin Marco University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Researcher, Phd Coordination group
Chiodini Giovanni Istituto Nazionale Geofisica e Vulcanologia Professor
Cirilli Simonetta University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Professor
Comodi Paola University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Professor
De Paola Nicola University of Durham Professor
Di Matteo Lucio University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Professor
Frondini Francesco University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Professor
Koyi Hemin Uppsala University Professor
Kueppers Ulrich Ludwig- Maximilians University, Munchen Professor
Martini Rossana Université de Genève Professor
Melelli Laura University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Researcher, Phd Coordination group
Mondini Alessandro Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Professor
Pauselli Cristina University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Researcher
Perugini Diego University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Professor
Petrelli Maurizio University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Researcher, Phd Coordination group
Porreca Massimiliano University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Researcher
Rettori Roberto University of Perugia, Department of Physics and Geology Professor
Robertson Peter Queen's University Belfast Professor
Rooney David Queen's University Belfast Professor

37th Cycle

The Ph.D. students for the 37th cycle will be appointed soon. The call is available at this link.

36th Cycle


 

Matteo BISOLFATI

BISOLFATI Matteo square

Contacts:
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PhD Project
Title: Constraining the geochemical composition of lavas erupted on extraterrestrial planets by spectral analysis of experimental samples. (Petrology, Planetary Geology)

Topic: This PhD work will focus on the analysis of the spectral response in the infrared range of samples rocks made in the laboratory by melting natural material. Gained results will be comparate with the cosmic radiometry measurements, in collaboration with the Italian Space Agency (ASI). In parallel we will analyze the fractal geometric characteristics through the analysis of Digital Elevation Models of natural surfaces with the purpose to extrapolate chemical, geometric and geomorphological information of geological environments.

Publications

Pisello et al., 2019. Retrieving magma composition from TIR spectra: implications for terrestrial planets investigations. Scientific Reports, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-51543-9  

 

Maria Chiara CACIOLLI

foto caciolli

Contacts
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

PhD project

Title: A multi-technique geological and geophysical approach for characterization of soils in Appennine intermountain basins of Central Italy in seismic microzonation perspective.

Topic: The aim is to test a method based on indirect techniques to investigate the subsoil: stratigraphic sequences and buried geometries are fundamental factors for the local site response.

Publications

1. Mancini M., Stigliano F., Moscatelli M., Caciolli M.C., Fortunato C., Giallini S., Pennica F., Sirianni P. Caratterizzazione geologica dei terreni di copertura per la valutazione dei geohazard  (2020) IGAG DAYS, Roma 2020

2. Gaudiosi I., Caciolli M.C., Fortunato C., Giallini S., Polpetta F., Razzano R., Sirianni P., Simionato M., Tarquini E. Il contributo degli effetti di sito alla stima della pericolosità sismica: best practices e prospettive future (2020) IGAG DAYS, Roma 2020

3. Alleanza G.A., d’Onofrio A., Gargiulo F., Silvestri F., Mancini M., Gaudiosi I., Caciolli M., Cavuoto G., Di Fiore V., Milana G., Vassallo M. (2020) Valutazione della risposta sismica locale di alcune aree dell’Isola di Ischia per la pianificazione di interventi di mitigazione del Rischio Sismico. XXVII CNG

4. M. Mancini,I. Gaudiosi,M.C. Caciolli, G. Cavuoto, V. Di Fiore, G. Milana, M. Vassallo, F. Silvestri, A. d’Onofrio, G. A. Alleanza, P. Pompa, M. Coltella, G. Cosentino, A. Pietrosante, E. Tarquini (2019) Assessment of site effects in volcanic areas: results from Seismic Microzonation studies in the Island of Ischia (Naples, Italy). GNGTS, Roma, 2019. pp 1-3

 

 

Nicola Mitillo

MITILLO Nicola square

Contacts:
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Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/in/nicola-mitillo-32192a178

PhD Project
Title: Characterization of CO2 Geological Reservoir Storage
Topic: Mostly of carbonates reservoirs have been used for oil and gas production for their favorable characteristics like porosity and permeability, but only recently researchers understood the potential value of these formations as tools in addressing climate change. From this point of view, carbonate reservoirs, which are known to be much more chemically reactive when interacting with CO2, were poorly investigated. For this reason, the aims of the PhD will be to fully understand the behavior and interaction between the injected CO2 and the hosting rock from a petrophysical, mineralogical and geochemical point of view.

References
1. Zucchini A. et al, 2019. The influence of the dolomitization process on texture and porosity of carbonates. Congresso congiunto SIMP-SGI SOGEI – Il tempo del pianeta Terra e il tempo dell'uomo: Le geoscienze fra passato e futuro (Parma, Italia)


Lisa RICCI

RICCI Lisa square

Contacts
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Phone:
Address:

PhD Project
Title: Tectonic and volcanic Earth degassing along the European Cenozoic Rift System (ECRIS): Origin of the fluids and quantification of the process.

Topic: My current project is focuses on the study of Earth degassing along the passive rift named European Cenozoic Rift System (ECRIS). The aims of the project are the quantitative estimation of the CO2 flux and the study of the chemical and isotopic composition of fluids discharged to the surface along the ECRIS system. The quantification of the total CO2 discharged to the atmosphere from rift areas is crucial for the correct definition of the present-day global Earth degassing.

References
1. Mancini et al., 2020. Geogenic CO2 flux calculations from the Late Pleistocene Tivoli travertines (Acque Albule Basin, Tivoli, Central Italy). DOI: 10.3301/IJG.2020.10

2. Ricci et al., 2018. Oxygen isotopic analysis of Mineo (Sicily, Italy) pallasite. Plinius, doi: 10.19276/plinius.2018.03016

3. Ricci et al., 2017. Oxygen isotopic analysis of Mineo (Sicily, Italy) pallasite. Geoscience: a tool in a changing world. Abstract book. Congresso SIMP-SGI-SOGEI-AIV 2017, doi: 10.3301/ABSGI/2017.01

The fields of Physics and Geology share several methodologies and research themes, such as the application of physical, numerical, experimental, and computer technology methods. Particularly relevant are the studies on the cosmic radiation and astroparticles, nuclear and elementary particle physics, the properties of condensed matter, cosmochemistry and geochemistry of the solar system bodies, the nuclear dating of meteorites and rocks, tectonics and geodynamics, the exploration of mineral and hydrocarbon resources, and the dynamics of earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic eruptions. The interdisciplinary teaching and research training approach is aimed at forming specialists with an outstanding scientific profile, who are able to develop their future career in both basic and applied research and the industry. Agreements with foreign high level Universities (such as the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenaghen) have been signed to insure the possibility of co-tutorship of the PhD Thesis and of achieving the title of Doctor Europaeus.

The integration between physical and geological disciplines occurs through the development of two interacting curricula: Physics and Geology.

The curriculum in Physics includes theoretical and experimental research carried out in collaboration with international organizations, such as CERN, ESA, ESO and NASA. It focuses on fundamental interactions, particle and astroparticle physics, and nuclear interactions. Moreover, the curriculum comprises education and research training in condensed matter and solid state physics, as well as in biophysics and nanoscience research, also in collaboration with international facilities such as Elettra, ILL and ESS.

The curriculum in Geology includes field and experimental research on the main constituents of the earth (minerals, rocks, fossils), on the magmatic, geomorphologic, sedimentologic and tectonic processes.  Moreover, it includes research training aimed at localizing and exploiting geologic resources such as geomaterials, water and hydrocarbon resources. Specific lines of research are developed in the context of engineering geology, hydrogeological, seismological, and volcanic risks.

A list of present and past specific research topics can be found in the section devoted to PhD Students.

Here you will find a collection of photos relative to the celebration of the PhD Honoris Causa to John Sandercock: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/ylob0mf4o6um71o/AABNaEYBoFC_XDjJ1OblNJBTa?dl=0

Coordinator of the PhD Program and Responsible for the Curriculum in Physics

Prof Giovanni Carlotti 

tel.:  [+39] 075 585 2767

e-mail: giovanni.carlotti(at)unipg.it

Vice-Coordinator and Responsible for the Curriculum in Geology

Prof Diego Perugini 

tel.: [+39] 075 585 2608

e-mail: diego.perugini(at)unipg.it

AA2021-2022

Seminars and Schools

The specific activities to be carried out starting from November 2021 will be defined by the Ph.D. board accounting for the profiles of the students appointed for the 37th cycle.

Courses offered by the MSc in Geology, University of Perugia

Title and MsC: Earth System Science, MsC in Geosciences for Risks and Environment
Management
Teacher: Prof. Diego Perugini
6 ECTS credits, possibly in presence, first semester

Title and MsC: Mathematical methods for Geosciences, MsC in Geosciences for Risks and Environment Management
Teacher: Dr. Maurizio Petrelli
ETCS and Scheduling: 6 ECTS credits, possibly in presence, first semester

Title and MsC: Environmental geochemistry, MsC in Geosciences for Risks and Environment Management
Teacher: Prof. Francesco Frondini
ETCS and Scheduling: 6 ECTS credits, possibly in presence, second semester

Further training activities

The doctoral training program also comprises further activities, shared with other University of Perugia PhD programs, as described in the following.
Disciplinary and interdisciplinary training, advanced linguistic and computing training:
- Foreign language courses at CLA (Centro Linguistico d'Ateneo/University Language Center) according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), of six-month (10 CFU/ECTS) or annual (13 CFU/ECTS) duration;
- Computer lab courses or specific modules (1-2 CFU/ECTS) related to software for data analysis (R, Stata, GIS), word processing programs (LaTeX), specialized software, dedicated to geological data processing;
- Research management, knowledge of research systems and funding systems (1 CFU/ECTS);
- Enhancement of research results and intellectual property (6 courses, each 1 CFU/ECTS each). Each course is focused on the transition from basic research to applied research; research enhancement techniques; the funding of applied research; the protection of intellectual property; the university's actions to promote patents; business creation and research spin-offs. All the courses and modules described in this section require a final check.

AA2020-2021

Seminars

Seminars and Lectures, on topics not strictly related to the student research projects, will be organized, usually in the period between November 1st and May 31st, aimed at broadening the skills and increasing the awareness of PhD students. The lectures will be given by Italian and foreign qualified experts, by members of the PhD Board, as well as by former PhD students.

Jan 20, 17.00
Tonci Balic-Zunic (Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen)
Diffraction, a basic method in Geosciences

Jan 27, 17.00
Massimiliano Alvioli (CNR-IRPI, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica)
Optimization of geomorphological slope units

Feb 03, 17.00
Hemin A. Koyi (Department of Earth Sciences, University of Uppsala)
How safe is the “safe”; salt structures as repositories for radioactive waste disposal

Feb 10, 17.00
Anne Pommier (UCSD-SIO, University of California San Diego, USA)
Experimental investigation of planetary interiors using electrical measurements 

Feb 17, 17.00 - link to the seminar https://bit.ly/3r1QMUP
Andrea Chiuri (ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development)
Analytical techniques for geological sites characterization

Feb 24, 17.00
Giovanni Chiodini (INGV, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Bologna)
Carbon dioxide Earth degassing, heat flux and earthquakes: the case of the Apennines

Mar 03, 17.00
Francesco Salese (CSIC-INTA, Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid)
Sedimentary Mars

Doctoral Courses

Title: Inverse Problems in Geophysics
Teacher: Prof. Rick Bennett Introduction to Atmospheric Physics and Climate
ETCS and Scheduling: 3 ECTS credits, Online, second semester

Title: Introduction to Atmospheric Physics and Climate
Teacher: Dr. Paolina Bongioannini Cerlini
ETCS and Scheduling: 6 ECTS credits, possibly in presence, second semester

Title: Combining GIS, Machine Learning, and Remote Sensing: how the spatial analysis could improve your research.
Teachers: Dr. Laura Melelli, Dr. Alessandro Mondini, Dr. Maurizio Petrelli
ETCS and Scheduling: 3 ECTS credits, possibly in presence, second semester

Schools

Title: School in Structural Geology “G. Pialli”
ETCS and Scheduling: 6 ETCS credits, possibly in presence, second semester (tentatively in September)

Title: School of Paleoanthropology
ETCS and Scheduling: 6 ECTS credits, possibly in presence, second semester (tentatively in June)

Title: International Short Course on Application of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry to Earth Sciences
ETCS and Scheduling: 3 ECTS credits), possibly in presence, 25-25 June 2021

Courses offered by the MSc in Geology, University of Perugia

Title and MsC: Earth System Science, MsC in Geosciences for Risks and Environment
Management
Teacher: Prof. Diego Perugini
6 ECTS credits, possibly in presence, first semester

Title and MsC: Mathematical methods for Geosciences, MsC in Geosciences for Risks and Environment Management
Teacher: Dr. Maurizio Petrelli
ETCS and Scheduling: 6 ECTS credits, possibly in presence, first semester

Title and MsC: Environmental geochemistry, MsC in Geosciences for Risks and Environment Management
Teacher: Prof. Francesco Frondini
ETCS and Scheduling: 6 ECTS credits, possibly in presence, second semester

Further training activities

The doctoral training program also comprises further activities, shared with other University of Perugia PhD programs, as described in the following.
Disciplinary and interdisciplinary training, advanced linguistic and computing training:
- Foreign language courses at CLA (Centro Linguistico d'Ateneo/University Language Center) according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), of six-month (10 CFU/ECTS) or annual (13 CFU/ECTS) duration;
- Computer lab courses or specific modules (1-2 CFU/ECTS) related to software for data analysis (R, Stata, GIS), word processing programs (LaTeX), specialized software, dedicated to geological data processing;
- Research management, knowledge of research systems and funding systems (1 CFU/ECTS);
- Enhancement of research results and intellectual property (6 courses, each 1 CFU/ECTS each). Each course is focused on the transition from basic research to applied research; research enhancement techniques; the funding of applied research; the protection of intellectual property; the university's actions to promote patents; business creation and research spin-offs. All the courses and modules described in this section require a final check.

 

37° Cycle - Call

The Ph.D. students for the 37th cycle will be appointed soon. The call is available at this link.

Topics of main interest for Ph.D. Projects

Paleoenvironmental and chronological characterization of the Tiber Basin (Umbria) based on fossil vertebrates (Cherin)

The Tiber basin is the largest intermontane continental basin along the Apennines, today recognized as a complex depositional system deriving from the coalescence of lacustrine, palustrine, and fluvial environments alternating in space and time. Our knowledge of the tectonic-sedimentary and environmental evolution of the basin is biased by the lack of well-constrained chronological data. We welcome projects aimed at the study/reappraisal of the paleontological features (taxonomy, taphonomy, biochronology, paleobiology, paleoecology) of selected sites in the Tiber basin and neighboring areas. Projects have to focus on macro- and micro-vertebrates and should be carried out also by 3D modeling and analysis. We advocate an interdisciplinary approach with the combination between the collected data and those from paleobotany, sedimentology, magnetostratigraphy, geochronology, etc. The candidate is expected to have solid knowledge on vertebrate paleontology and taphonomy. Basic skills on collection and lab preparation of fossil vertebrates are welcome.

Evolution of sedimentary basins in different geodynamic frameworks (Cirilli and Barchi)

The study of onset and evolution of sedimentary basins in their geodynamic framework, and the characterization of their internal architecture, is a classical and wide geological theme, involving a variety of disciplines and methods, including stratigraphy, sedimentology, structural geology, tectonics and geophysics; and were the basin analysis can be approached also with modern techniques of numerical and/or numerical modelling. All these approaches are welcome for the proposed projects, with a preference for multidisciplinary and multitasking studies, based on the integration of different methods and data-sets, and discussing the possible application to the problems of exploration and of energy resources and to gas and carbon dioxide storage, as contributes to the face the challenges of the energy transition.

Geopolymers based on urban wastes for preservation and restoration of cultural heritage (Comodi)

Geopolymers, a new environment-friendly cementitious material, are attracting greatly the attention because they can reduce the CO2 emission caused by the cement industry, they can take natural or waste products as the primary raw materials and their physio- chemical properties (fire and chemical corrosion, mechanical strength, durability, flexibility…) are excellent. In particular geopolymers have impressed as a promising material for restoration, both of modern and historical construction. Between the suggested wastes to geopolymer production, recent studies have indicated the earthquake rubbles which, in the affected areas, could allow a local efficient, accountable and sustainable re-use. Projects aimed to study the strengths and weakness of innovative geopolymer based on earthquake rubbles and their performance in the restoration on historical building are welcome. The candidate is expected to have a solid preparation on geomaterials and on the main methodologies for the chemical, physical, mineralogical, mechanical characterizations of solid state materials.

Morphotectonic evolution of post-orogenic basins in the Northern Apennines (Melelli)

The Quaternary post-orogenic basins located in the Northern Apennines are a unique opportunity for analyzing the evidences and the relationship between the recent and active tectonic evolution and their geomorphological signature. The investigation of the morphostructural and morphometric evidences, already tested in other areas both worldwide and in the Apennines has put in evidence the high potential of the interaction between geomorphology and structural geology supported by field work, quantitative approaches and GIS analysis. To strengthen this line of research we welcome projects with an interdisciplinary approach, aimed at the integration of both long-term structural data, mid-term deformation and geomorphologic evidences coupled with quaternary geochronological data. The candidate should be capable to map features in the field with special reference to Quaternary deposits, to manage digital/analogic aerial photos in photointerpretation means, and to use Geographical Information System for visualize and analyze spatial data. The knowledge of the basis of geomorphometry is welcome.

Mapping the thermophysical properties of Apennines rocks: implications for the evaluation of low-enthalpy geothermal energy (Pauselli)

Temperature is a key factor in all processes affecting the solid Earth but in spite of the existence of high number of measurements of heat flow in the world, the temperature distribution inside Earth is still very uncertain. The problem lies in the impossibility of accessing Earth’s interior, except for shallow depths, causes the temperature to be derived by models that are strongly influenced by the thermal properties of the materials. The Western Umbria region (Central Apennines), thanks to its proximity to the western Tuscan geothermal fields, constitutes a promising area where a low enthalpy geothermal network can be developed. We welcome project aims to create a mapping of the thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, density,) of the different rocks constituting the subsoil, to constrain the geothermal calculation and to evaluate the low enthalpy geothermal potential. Candidates are expected to be familiar with numerical modeling and laboratory measurements.

Data Driven Approach to investigate pre-eruptive magma storage and trigger mechanisms of volcanic eruptions (Petrelli)

Machine learning (ML) is a sub-field of Artificial Intelligence. It concerns the use of algorithms to detect patterns in large data sets and using these patterns to predict trends, classify, or make strategic decisions. A characteristic of ML tools is that they are not developed to process conceptual models defined a priori. Instead, they attempt to uncover the complexities of large data sets through so-called learning. The goal is to convert experience (i.e., data) into “expertise” or “knowledge”. We welcome projects aimed at investigating pre-eruptive magma storage conditions in volcanic plumbing systems and the processes leading to eruption using classical methods and techniques based on ML. Projects should include how the candidate intends to combine petrological, statistical, and programming (Python is desirable) tools. Also, proposals should include a plan for the analysis of textures and geochemistries (major and trace elements) of eruptive products for one or more study cases.

Experimental study on infiltration and erosion processes on hillslopes (Di Matteo)

The project aims to investigate at laboratory and field-scale the soil dynamic, i.e. infiltration and erosion processes. Erosion is essential to be quantified because it is responsible for siltation in water bodies, degradation of lands and quality of lakes and rivers, slope stability, etc. In general, the USLE family models and available distributed models quantify the sediment produced at catchment scale based on rainfall intensity, topography, land use, and agricultural practices. These models need to be tested and calibrated on different spatial scales and weather conditions. The project is part of active collaboration with the Department of Agriculture Food and Environmental Science of Perugia University. Data from an experimental field close to Perugia, coupled with remote sensing data, will be used to reach the project goal.

Ongoing Ph.D. Cycles

  • 37° Cycle: 2021-2024;
  • 36° Cycle: 2020-2023.

General information

The new PhD program in Earth System and Global Changes aims to train specialists with interdisciplinary skills, able to deal with several significant and compelling problems of our rapidly changing world, mainly related to: Earth history and dynamics; exploitation of renewable and non-renewable energy resources and geomaterials, also in the perspective of a circular economy; mitigation of geological risks (seismic, volcanic, and hydro-geomorphological).
The PhD program provides international training opportunities on issues relating to climate change, strategies for mitigating natural and human-induced risks, demand for natural resources, and environmental sustainability.

Postdoctoral occupational contexts

The PhD program will train experts with high technical-scientific profile, able to fit into various public and private occupational contexts. The obtained updated and innovative skills will facilitate access to numerous work fields, such as (1) universities and other research institutions; (2) government agencies that require researchers who can support management and policy decisions to address major environmental problems that modern society is facing today, also promoting increased interactions between stakeholders and local communities (Social License); (3) public and private companies devoted to land management and geological risk mitigation, procurement, modelling, and management of geo-resources, sustainable production of minerals and energy resources, and the study and promotion of landscape and cultural heritage.

Educational and training activities

The PhD board provides a Doctoral Training Program, consisting of a wide range of first-class teaching activities. Starting from this program, PhD students are strongly encouraged in customizing their personal training path, coherently with the objectives of their specific research project.

Doctoral program courses

The courses will be taken by teachers belonging to the PhD board or by qualified external teachers, and may also be organized as thematic schools and/or workshops. All courses and schools will be open to students from other Italian or international PhD programs, promoting intellectual, scientific and personal exchanges among the participants. Eight courses (on average 3 ECTS each) will be offered, distributed in two periods: First semester (and winter schools), November-February; Second semester (and summer schools), March-October.

Courses offered by the MSc in Geology

The Department of Physics and Geology activated two new MSc courses ("GeoSciences for Risk and Environment Management" and "Geology for Energy Resources"), whose topics effectively interface with the educational objectives of the PhD program. Three courses (6 ECTS each), borrowed from the MSc classes, will be included in the PhD program, aimed to integrate specific training demands.

Seminar Cycles

Seminars and Lectures, on topics not strictly related to the student research projects, will be organized, usually in the period between November 1st and May 31st, aimed at broadening the skills and increasing the awareness of PhD students. The lectures will be given by Italian and foreign qualified experts, by members of the PhD Board, as well as by former PhD students.

Research stay in Italy and abroad

The PhD training program will be enhanced by stays at other universities or research institutions, in Italy (for an average period of 3 months) or abroad, both within the institutions involved in the PhD (for an average period of 12 months), and/or in other qualified universities or research institutions (for an average period of 6 months).

Further training activities

The doctoral training program also comprises further activities, shared with other University of Perugia PhD programs, as described in the following.
Disciplinary and interdisciplinary training, advanced linguistic and computing training:
- Foreign language courses at CLA (Centro Linguistico d'Ateneo/University Language Center) according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), of six-month (10 CFU/ECTS) or annual (13 CFU/ECTS) duration;
- Computer lab courses or specific modules (1-2 CFU/ECTS) related to software for data analysis (R, Stata, GIS), word processing programs (LaTeX), specialized software, dedicated to geological data processing;
- Research management, knowledge of research systems and funding systems (1 CFU/ECTS);
- Enhancement of research results and intellectual property (6 courses, each 1 CFU/ECTS each). Each course is focused on the transition from basic research to applied research; research enhancement techniques; the funding of applied research; the protection of intellectual property; the university's actions to promote patents; business creation and research spin-offs. All the courses and modules described in this section require a final check.